specific task here is to describe the complex structure of man’s psyche. In fact there exists at present no such science.
Is the psychic body made up of organs, more or less analogical
to those of the physical body? The fact that it is invisible and only indirectly detectable will not prevent us from affirming
that it is a ‘body’. The reader will never find such a statement in any lay text: It is only the Early Fathers
of the Church who affirmed that man is endowed with a
complex psychic body. Until today, nothing of the sort exists in positive psychology. On the whole
psychology deals with complex subjects like memory, imagination and the process of creating ideas, etc., which it has never
been able to bind in a coherent unity, to say nothing about the functional study of the brain centres which have added to the confusion of an already confused subject.
Psychology is thus now fragmented into numerous compartmented, heterogeneous studies, narrow in scope and quite modest in
so far as results are concerned: Experimental psychology,
Reflex psychology, Psychology of ethnic races, whether Russian, German or Hindu, etc., Instincts psychology, Brain and special
senses psychology, Depths psychology, etc. Another large
department of psychology has been created by several industrial states to test efficiency and competence in their engineers,
pilots, doctors, labourers, astronauts and plenty of others... A sum of ideal qualities required in each discipline forms
the basis on which the tests are elaborated. As if Man was
not one and the same throughout Times and Space, as if Man was a multiplicity of different beings foreign to one another.
was left up to psychoanalysis to utilise at the measure of its forces this heavy, contradictory and inconclusive heritage
and to find for itself a new way. Here the criterion was upturned: If the patient was cured, then the psychological knowledge
was sound. The encouraging results and the admiration
which it justly deserved will not blind us: Psychoanalysis has not provided us with a solid theory on the structure of the human psyche, only problematic and incomplete statements. It
has contented itself with the results it obtained, and out of which it never succeeded to draw for us an integral comprehension
of man’s psychology.
Jung’s famous essay concerning human typology testifies to this failure. Can we define and enumerate the existing
human types, and on what basis? This trial was not successful and did not yield the expected results.
In it, Jung has had recourse to diverse and unorthodox sources, scientifically speaking, like Origen and other Fathers of the Church.
the other hand the science of Characterology which was supposed to answer the questions: what is a
character? How many kinds of characters are there? And, can we classify men according to their character? This branch of psychology succeeded in the end to fix and determine a certain number of character
traits or features. But it did not answer the main questions it was meant to.
neither psychology, nor psychoanalysis, nor Characterology, nor any other discipline did provide us
with a description of the psyche as accurate as that description which anatomy provides us with concerning the human physical
We will not mention all the psychological monographs
and unilateral studies that can be found in the works of many contemporary occidental philosophers; such as those of the great
phenomenological and existential schools, who describe Man psychologically speaking as a consciousness of being. Yet we must recognise their original and deep understanding
of Man in terms of ontology, and we must pay homage to their splendid efforts to found their new phenomenological, existential
psychoanalysis on the triple following basis: Being, Having and Doing. These three fundamental characteristics in man’s
psychology are according to them irreducible and indivisible;
they are the Atoms of the human psyche. In fact these philosophers have inspired a new generation of highly cultured psychoanalysts
to rebuild psychoanalysis on these new bases. The school of Henry Ey in France and that of Binswanger in Germany testify to the grandeur of that enterprise.
conclude, we must say that the thousands upon thousands of empirical and experimental psychological studies did not avail
much: We have not been provided with a solid system of knowledge on which to understand others and ourselves.
addition, one of the gravest mistakes modern psychological sciences committed was to never accept introspection as a valid
method. It admired the deep descriptions of famous writers like Balzac, Proust, Dostoyevsky, Zola,
etc. But, to it introspection was condemned before even being tried.
succession of the realistic school, the behaviourist school, Gestalt psychology, the personalist school of Mounier and many others fully justify us in saying what we said in the title of this short historical note. There exists
no valid attempt at describing the human psyche as a live entity.
Up to our days, this statement remains fully valid.
think we are fully entitled to say that psychology agonises.
The chaotic state in which this pseudo science drifts away seems to have no possible way out.
as one of the four main classical branches of philosophy is therefore and undoubtedly in a mortal crisis.
with many other writers who are aware of the general human crisis of this end of the twentieth century, we believe that we
must have recourse to the Ancients, for a possible solution. We have resolved on our part to rely on the powerful, clear and
sharp knowledge that these same Ancients have transmitted to us about the structure of the psyche or mortal soul of Man. Our contemporaries can hardly conceive that there existed since times immemorial a systematic corpus of knowledge
to study the human psyche. The latter is according to
them composed of three spheres or centres, each quite complex in itself: The sphere of instincts and motricity, the sphere
of emotivity or affectivity and finally the sphere of intellection or discursive thought. We shall adopt this structure of
the human psyche as the instrument with which we will study Man, far from the chaos of the hybrid and heterogeneous results of
the actual psychological sciences.
three spheres are interconnected. Elaborately studied they give an integral, adequate and polyvalent comprehension of Man.
will profit at the measure of our forces from the abundant, detailed and profound works that men like Plato, the Great Fathers of the Church and the Islamic theosophists have left us on this subject.
It is a wealth that modern positive sciences have left aside not knowing exactly what they have missed. Some contemporary
authors should be praised, like Jung, Evola, Kerenye, Mircea Eliade, etc., for having pointed to the
extreme importance of such works; they thus promoted a vast international interest in the prominent works of the Ancients.
Now all cultured milieus, for example, know for sure that beyond the Alchemical processes of metal
transmutations, these alchemists meant above all to transmute their own souls, and even aimed at some sort of androgynous
internal union, as we see this abundantly expressed in the famous theme of the fusion between king and queen.
must state that all Ancient Traditions, whether originating in China, India, Assyria, Hebraic Palestine, Phoenicia, Ancient
Egypt, Greece or Medieval Europe are all in full agreement
about the detailed structure of the human psyche.
is the triple structure of the mortal human psyche, also
called the Personality, which we will adopt in our studies to understand Man and his possible evolution…